Newsletter

 

Academy of Combat Newsletter #159

 

Novice Thai Boxing Fights

Congratulations to Thea, Megan, Issac, Mike and Maria who fought at the Sitnarong Novice Thai Boxing event in Christchurch. You all did extremely well.

Maria's MMA Fight

Well done to 16 year old Maria Churcher who put on an amazing performance in her debut MMA fight in Dunedin at XFC 33. Maria fought a much older and more experienced opponent and won by triangle choke in the 2nd round.

Academy Grappling Tournaments

The Academy will host 2 end of year grappling tournaments week after next:

Tuesday 19th December= Gi
Thursday 21st December= No Gi

They are open to all levels and we have a handicap system so everyone has a chance!


Mat Jandals

From now on all students who are using the grappling mats are to bring jandals to wear when entering the bathrooms. This is to keep the mats cleaner and germ free. 

Reminders

1) Saturday fitness class 10:00am until 10:45am

2) There is Friday Night sparring 6-7:30pm for BJJ, MMA and Thai Boxing. If you haven’t sparred before please book a sparring etiquette appointment at reception before your first session.

3) There is an open mat on Saturdays for sparring and drilling from 12pm until 2pm.

Article

Repetition Learning

When first learning a new technique it is important that we chunk it down into smaller, easily learned units as discussed in an earlier tips newsletter. Once easily assimilated chunks are obtained these must be practiced with repetition to learn them. However, just repeating them over and over again in a session has its limitations. Studies on a simple nervous system have shown that any more than 10 repetitions of a task in a session does not result in any increase to retention, in addition, performing only one session of learning a new piece of material results in very little retention over a long period.

The most useful method of repetition drilling, to gain the most effective retention, is to spread the repetitions over a number of sessions.

A method that has shown a great deal of effect is to carry out 7 to 10 repetitions in a session of the material. And then carry out at least nine repeat review sessions over several days or weeks. The closer the review sessions are together the quicker the optimal retention is obtained.

Boredom becomes a factor in repetition drilling and is detrimental to retention as the learning process is seriously impaired. Disguising the repetitions in drills, combinations and games that utilize the particular skill involved are ways that can get around this problem.

Fatigue is another factor that must be taken into consideration. Learning and skill development occur beast when the mind and body are fresh and energized; studying early in the day is very beneficial. Always ensure that you learn and repetition new material early in your training program. I find that reviewing earlier material that is related to the new material to be earned immediately before the new material works well.

As soon as fatigue and loss of concentration begins to show move on to the conditioning and sparring sections of your training workout.

Working the repetition of a technique until boredom is noticed and/or fatigue sets in, recording the number of repetitions that you have performed in the training session in your training diary and then working more repetitions in another training session to get to your repetition goal, is another strategy that can get around this problem.

Just develop a determined discipline to complete a predetermined number of repetitions. I would suggest a minimum of 60 spread over a 2 year period for maximum retention.

Bear in mind that this is for the learning and retention of a new technique, not the optimal refinement of it for the highest level of effectiveness that may be required for competition. This requires the development and sharpening of the various attributes required for optimal performance of the technique, such as: speed, timing, flow, balance, connectivity to the next move, variation adjustment, corrections in balance, preparedness for reaction to the opponent’s movement, etc.

Taking it to this level requires many more repetitions and exposing the performance of the technique to increasing levels of risk through controlled to random sparring.

To ensure the best learning of the technique start by learning and drilling the technique under totally cooperative conditions to get it right. This is the retention period discussed above, once a good level of efficacy is obtained then try to use the technique in controlled sparring conditions or controlled performance drills in which your training partner presents moderate problems to deal with. As your efficacy increases start to utilize it in your sparring, at first against less experienced opponents working up to opponents of higher levels.

 Remember if you want to learn the the most devastating stand-up fighting system of Muay Thai be sure and check out our fully detailed and comprehensive Muay Thai Online video instruction course here at http://www.MuayThaiTrainingSite.com and get your first 2 weeks free.

'Til next time keep training hard.

Dr Geoff, Ph.D. www.UltimateFightingSystems.com 

Summary

  • Any more than 10 repetitions in a single session does not improve retention.

  •  Several repeat sessions are required over the long term to give best retention.
  •  Increase the level of risk that the new technique is performed at so that you development the confidence to use the technique

...and, if you haven't done so already, be sure and check out our Muay Thai online video training course which allows you to learn it at home, or add Muay Thai techniques to your existing system, with detailed video instruction, in addition you get to try it out first, by giving you the first 2 weeks of lessons free - check it out at:

http://www.MuayThaiTrainingCourse.com

 

Academy of Combat Newsletter #158

 

Next John Will Seminar November 24th 2017

John Will is returning shortly to the Academy for another in depth and exciting BJJ seminar. John is one of the first 12 non-Brazilians to be awarded a BJJ black belt and currently holds the rank of fifth degree. During his long and storied martial arts career John has trained with iconic names such as Rigan Machado, Rickson Gracie, Benny Urquidez and Gene Lebell. As well as being one of the world's best martial arts instructors, John is also the author of a growing collection of books and DVDs. He also instructs law enforcement groups and Special Operations personnel all over the world. While John's seminars are always packed with extremely useful techniques they are also very entertaining and thought-provoking due to John's vast life experience and sense of humour. Please don't miss this incredible opportunity.

  brazilian jiu jitsu techniques, brazilian jiu jitsu bjj, brazilian jiu jitsu academy,

 

Pay by November 20th and gain entrance to the seminar for

 

 ONLY $70

 

After November 20th the cost is $80

 

Time: 6pm to 9pm, Friday November 24th, 2017
Location: Academy of Combat
Open to any belt level

 

Novice Thai Boxing Fights

Maria, Thea and Megan are fighting at Sitnarong gym this Saturday the 11th of November, so get along and support them. Doors open at 1:30pm, get tickets from the Christchurch Martial Arts Store, 250 Stanmore Road or order over the phone via credit/debit card on 03 389 8831. Go hard girls!

Sparring Gear for Freestyle Martial Arts Classes

If you are a Freestyle Martial Arts student we highly recommend you get some shin pads and sparring gloves for class. These are necessary for many of the techniques we are teaching you now and will allow you to learn in a more optimal way.

Show Day

The Academy will be closed on Friday the 17th of November for Show Day. We will be open on Saturday the 18th as usual.

Reminders

1) Saturday fitness class 10:00am until 10:45am

2) There is Friday Night sparring 6-7:30pm for BJJ, MMA and Thai Boxing. If you haven’t sparred before please book a sparring etiquette appointment at reception before your first session.

3) There is an open mat on Saturdays for sparring and drilling from 12pm until 2pm.

Article

The Importance of Keeping Hydrated

Water makes up approximately 55% of our body weight. It therefore follows that it is very important to keep correctly hydrated as it is vital for optimal physical and mental function.

Water acts to regulate body temperature and the balance of sodium and potassium in our cells.

The need for water increases before, during and after exercise. It has been calculated that as much as 5 litres of sweat and the moisture through breathing is lost per day and we must take into account that the loss of sweat and moisture in breathing are greatly increased during intense exercise and the consumption of alcohol within 36 hours of an event also seriously compromises hydration.

Thirst awareness occurs when water loss has reached about 1% of body weight and for optimal performance to be maintained it must be dealt with immediately. At 2% body weight loss or greater, serious impairment of physical and mental function is experienced. If the loss reaches 7% or greater there is serious risk of danger to health.

It therefore becomes clear that the maintenance of our water intake must be upheld when training and competing to ensure optimal performance. Fighters in particular should be aware of the debilitating aspects of dehydration. Often when reducing their weight to reach a lower weight division, for competition, excess weight is reduced at the last minute using severe dehydration protocols. But this can seriously impair performance and compromise the outcome of the competition. Several
deaths in boxing can be directly attributed to dehydration before a match making the competitor susceptible to brain haemorrhage.

It is therefore recommended to begin weight reduction at least 6 to 8 weeks before competition time to ensure that the competitor gets within 2 - 3 kilograms of fight weight, , 2 weeks before competition time.To ensure adequate hydration during intense exercise and competition it is recommended that water is drunk every 20 minutes. Cold drinks are more readily absorbed.

The use of a sports drink with a carbohydrate component is recommended and in the case of endurance athletes the inclusion of electrolytes is also recommended. The addition of electrolytes helps absorption and a carbohydrate component of up to 15% carbohydrates can be added for endurance events. Solutions of 5 - 15 percent glucose polymers and soluble starch (malto-dextrose) are better. Fluid replacement drinks with electrolytes should contain less than 23 mgs sodium and 195 mgs potassium per litre.

In the case of seriously dehydrated athletes the use of salted drinks for water replacement can be dangerous; ensure that only water is given for these cases.

In addition the intake of too much water can cause hypo-natraemia or serious loss of sodium, therefore one must the hydrate responsibly.

Remember if you want to learn the the most devastating stand-up fighting system of Muay Thai be sure and check out our fully detailed and comprehensive Muay Thai Online video instruction course here at http://www.MuayThaiTrainingSite.com and get your first 2 weeks free.

'Til next time keep training hard.

Dr Geoff, Ph.D. www.UltimateFightingSystems.com

Summary

At 2% loss of body weight due to water loss optimal performance is impaired.  Hydrate at least every 20 minutes during intense exercise and competition. Use carbohydrate and electrolyte replacement drinks for optimal performance.

...and, if you haven't done so already, be sure and check out our Muay Thai online video training course which allows you to learn it at home, or add Muay Thai techniques to your existing system, with detailed video instruction, in addition you get to try it out first, by giving you the first 2 weeks of lessons free - check it out at:

 
In addition if you are serious about learning Muay Thai and want to learn it at home, or add Muay Thai techniques to your existing system, check out our Muay Thai online video training course with detailed video instruction, which allows you to try it out first, by giving you the first 2 weeks of lessons free - check it out at:
http://www.MuayThaiTrainingCourse.comhttp://www.MuayThaiTrainingCourse.com

 

Academy of Combat Newsletter #157

 

Next John Will Seminar August 18th 2017

John Will is returning shortly to the Academy for another in depth and exciting BJJ seminar. John is one of the first 12 non-Brazilians to be awarded a BJJ black belt and currently holds the rank of fifth degree. During his long and storied martial arts career John has trained with iconic names such as Rigan Machado, Rickson Gracie, Benny Urquidez and Gene Lebell. As well as being one of the world's best martial arts instructors, John is also the author of a growing collection of books and DVDs. He also instructs law enforcement groups and Special Operations personnel all over the world. While John's seminars are always packed with extremely useful techniques they are also very entertaining and thought-provoking due to John's vast life experience and sense of humour. Please don't miss this incredible opportunity.

  brazilian jiu jitsu techniques, brazilian jiu jitsu bjj, brazilian jiu jitsu academy,

 

Pay by August 11th and gain entrance to the seminar for

 

 ONLY $70

 

After August 11th the cost is $80

 

Time: 6pm to 9pm, Friday August 18th, 2017
Location: Academy of Combat
Open to any belt level

 

Will/Machado BJJ Championships 2017

The Will/Machado BJJ Championships are coming up fast and will take place on September 9th in Melbourne. There will be a seminar with Rigan Machado the next day. It's best to get accommodation and plane tickets arranged very soon if you are going as prices will only increase from now on. Online registration can be found here.

New Bags

We will have 2 brand new Thai Boxing bags up by next week. Come in and give them a bash!

CTG Youth Grappling Tournament

Well done to Brielle Pierson and Gary Shadbolt who competed at the Canterbury's Top Grappler Youth Tournament on July 23rd. We are very proud of how you both performed as you were up against some very experienced competition.

Farewell Tara

It is with great sadness that we must say farewell to our Reception Manager Tara who has left the Academy to pursue a career in law. Tara is our longest serving receptionist, having been with us for four and a half years, and we wish her all the best for her future endeavours.

Reminders

1) Saturday fitness class 10:00am until 10:45am

2) Fighters Classes, Monday & Tuesday 8-9pm and Thursday 6-7pm.

3) There is Friday Night sparring 6-7:30pm for BJJ, MMA and Thai Boxing. If you haven’t sparred before please book a sparring etiquette appointment at reception before your first session.

4) There is an open mat on Saturdays for sparring and drilling from 12pm until 2pm.

Article


Beyond Technique: Essential Fighting Skill Attributes, Part 2

In this the second part of a 2 part article I will discuss the most important attributes with short descriptions and comments below.

Timing: Delivering and landing the right strikes at the right time and executing effective defense and counter-attacks. This attribute is trained and refined through sparring, realistic offense and defense drills and pad-work that focuses on striking when the target is presented.

Distance: The ability to control and maintain the correct distance for optimal attack and defense. This requires very efficient and precise foot-work. Again the training of this attribute should be built into controlled sparring, drills and pad-work

Working Angles: Developing the ability to move on angles in both defense and offense is a very useful skill and will give you a decisive advantage.

Rhythm: This includes working the opponents rhythm, setting it up and breaking it; the mark of a great fighter.

Speed: The physical execution, mental reaction and processing time are the major factors determining the speed of attacks and defenses, however, any of the other attributes outlined here also play major roles in determining overall speed.  Constant drilling with a mind-set of increasing speed without sacrificing form is the main way to increase your speed of execution and as mentioned above the development of other attributes will further increase your speed.

Explosiveness: One of the most important attributes in the fight game. Many of the sports specific training programs today focus heavily on this attribute. A great deal of attention was given to explosiveness development following the Soviet Olympic successes and exposure to the Bulgarian research into what has become known as Plyometrics.

Leverage: If you want to develop maximum power, with minimal energy wastage then you must develop an understanding of, and use leverage in, the execution of your techniques. This requires an in-depth analysis and knowledge of the bio-mechanical principles that underlie the techniques in the system you are training.

Balance: Having a well developed sense of positional balance and control of weight transfer is necessary to be able to adjust to the constantly changing aspects of a fight, in any discipline. MMA forces the practitioner to develop this attribute more than any other discipline.  Balance in motion must be developed to a very high level for all fighting disciplines.

Focus (Developing the Zone flow state): The mental ability to channel the attention into executing the best performance at the time. This attribute is acquired through practice and performance with increasing levels of pressure and can be enhanced thought the use of hypnosis and neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) techniques.

Accuracy & Precision: Delivering strikes accurately, countering precisely and performing maneuvers with optimal efficiency and leverage will greatly improve the effectiveness of your game. This attribute, as with timing, is developed through sparring and precision pad-work.

Tenacity (will to win): A poorly understood attribute that appears linked to deep seated emotional aspects of the mental make-up. Although most athletes come into their chosen discipline with this attribute seemingly built in it has most likely been generated by experiences up to the time of taking part in the discipline they have come to be motivated to excel in. This is another attribute that can be enhanced with hypnosis and NLP.

Endurance: A basic attribute that must be maintained in order to get the most from your training, friendly play or competition in any discipline. This should include mental, emotional and physical endurance. Endurance is built through training in a way that constantly extends your previous and own predetermined limits.

Strength: Given that skill levels are similar, the stronger practitioner will always have an advantage. Strength developed through a sports-specific program with actions pertaining to the particular discipline that you are engaged in will enhance your performance in any physically demanding pursuit.

Non-telegraphic delivery: This attribute is especially important when engaged in a competitive situation that requires rapid execution that eludes the opponent's defensive actions and counters. Constant practice, with the focus on good form, in front of a mirror or with a coach giving positive feed-back will improve this attribute.

Flexibility: Although I refer here to physical flexibility this should also include mental flexibility. By physical flexibility I mean to the physical range of motion of your body. This allows for faster and more precise actions when performing the movements of any discipline. Mental flexibility refers to the ability to change strategy, should the need arise, during the performance.

Technique Flow: Physically being able to move from technique to technique both within offense and defense and between them is an attribute that must be cultivated in order to excel in all competitive activities. This is developed in controlled sparring conditions "playing" where the goal is not to win but to develop your game.

Economy of Motion: The ability to execute the techniques without any unnecessary movement will enhance many of the other required attributes outlined in this article. Improvement of flow, speed of execution and non-telegraphic delivery are directly influenced along with enhancements in endurance, explosiveness and timing. It is important that technique execution is analyzed so that the most economic movements are selected and trained.

As mentioned above, these attributes will be acquired during training in the particular discipline that you engage in. However, you should also seek out and practice other methodologies that improve these attributes as that will have a very positive effect on your training and performance.

The development of your ability in any discipline that you are engaged in is entirely dependent on your mind-set and the attitude that you have when you train. Develop an attitude of doing quality training and a goal of constant improvement whenever you engage in any training session.

Remember if you want to learn the the most devastating stand-up fighting system of Muay Thai be sure and check out our fully detailed and comprehensive Muay Thai Online video instruction course here at http://www.MuayThaiTrainingSite.com and get your first 2 weeks free.

'Til next time keep training hard.

Dr Geoff, Ph.D. www.UltimateFightingSystems.com

Summary

In this, the second part of a two part article I discuss the main attributes, both physical and psychological, that must be developed in order to obtain mastery in any fighting discipline.

...and, if you haven't done so already, be sure and check out our Muay Thai online video training course which allows you to learn it at home, or add Muay Thai techniques to your existing system, with detailed video instruction, in addition you get to try it out first, by giving you the first 2 weeks of lessons free -  check it out at:
http://www.MuayThaiTrainingCourse.com


Also have a look at:
for a no bullshit look at street fighting and self defence.

 

Academy of Combat Newsletter #156

 

Next John Will Seminar August 18th 2017

John Will is returning shortly to the Academy for another in depth and exciting BJJ seminar. John is one of the first 12 non-Brazilians to be awarded a BJJ black belt and currently holds the rank of fifth degree. During his long and storied martial arts career John has trained with iconic names such as Rigan Machado, Rickson Gracie, Benny Urquidez and Gene Lebell. As well as being one of the world's best martial arts instructors, John is also the author of a growing collection of books and DVDs. He also instructs law enforcement groups and Special Operations personnel all over the world. While John's seminars are always packed with extremely useful techniques they are also very entertaining and thought-provoking due to John's vast life experience and sense of humour. Please don't miss this incredible opportunity.

  brazilian jiu jitsu techniques, brazilian jiu jitsu bjj, brazilian jiu jitsu academy,

 

Pay by August 11th and gain entrance to the seminar for

 

 ONLY $70

 

After August 11th the cost is $80

 

Time: 6pm to 9pm, Friday August 18th, 2017
Location: Academy of Combat
Open to any belt level

 

Will/Machado BJJ Championships 2017

The Will/Machado BJJ Championships are coming up fast and will take place on September 9th in Melbourne. There will be a seminar with Rigan Machado the next day. It's best to get accommodation and plane tickets arranged very soon if you are going as prices will only increase from now on. Online registration can be found here.

Kids Classes

The kids martial arts students are away for the school holidays. Their classes will resume on Monday the 24th of July.

Reminders

1) Saturday fitness class 10:00am until 10:45am

2) Fighters Classes, Monday & Tuesday 8-9pm and Thursday 6-7pm.

3) There is Friday Night sparring 6-7:30pm for BJJ, MMA and Thai Boxing. If you haven’t sparred before please book a sparring etiquette appointment at reception before your first session.

4) There is an open mat on Saturdays for sparring and drilling from 12pm until 2pm.

Article

Beyond Technique: Essential Fighting Skill Attributes, Part 1

In my experience, as a martial arts coach and school owner, I have found that one of the most difficult aspects of developing a lot for students is keeping them focused on the drilling and repetition of their techniques so that they acquire the competency necessary to be able to use them under pressure.

The information that we have available to us these days gives us a readily available resource for a huge number of techniques and tactics that are being constantly updated or added to. To many this is a great thing and means that they can shortcut the time and effort taken to learn something, particularly a martial art. But learning something and mastering it are two completely different things.

You tube has provided a massive resource for finding all manner of fighting discipline techniques Students spend hours looking for some new clever technique that they can show off to their friends or try to use in sparring to beat their opponent. Many (to use BJJ as an example) can't even pass the basic guard but would rather spend time on some new X-guard sweep that they just found on Youtube.

With the obsession of the average student for techniques, they overlook the underlying attributes that are required to make a technique work and acquire mastery. In most cases this is just left to sparring by continually trying to apply it in their sparring matches. Little attention is paid to what makes the techniques work, it is just by chance that this may be stumbled upon and is never really understood. It many cases it is never acquired and a gross execution of the technique is adopted that relies either on extreme strength or chance.

The attributes required to be an effective fighter are many, the majority of which will be acquired through constantly training and drilling of the techniques pertaining to the particular discipline engaged in. However, many can be further enhanced by incorporating specialist drills and training methods into your training regime.

In addition, many athletes already have some of the attributes required to become proficient at the particular disciple they are practicing. This is often referred to as talent or natural ability for a pursuit. However, evidence suggests that these abilities and attributes have been acquired through the practice of other sports or interests or it may be that some event occurred in their lives that resulted in an insatiable drive to achieve in a specific endeavor. We can only speculate as to what drives this desire, however, being aware that emotion drives all decisions and that emotionally laden experiences often result in insatiable drives to appease some need created by that experience may provide one explanation or reason that will give us an understanding of this phenomena. In part 2 of this article I will discuss the most important attributes for mastering fighting disciplines and give brief outlines for methods to develop them.

Remember if you want to learn the the most devastating stand-up fighting system of Muay Thai be sure and check out our fully detailed and comprehensive Muay Thai Online video instruction course here at http://www.MuayThaiTrainingSite.com and get your first 2 weeks free.

'Til next time keep training hard.

Dr Geoff, Ph.D. www.UltimateFightingSystems.com  

Summary

In this newsletter tip, we discuss the underlying factors that develop mastery of any discipline: the attributes that enhance the performance of the techniques within the system.

In this, the first part of a two part article I provide a short background for part 2 in which I will outline the main attributes and ways in which they may be trained.

...and, if you haven't done so already, be sure and check out our Muay Thai online video training course which allows you to learn it at home, or add Muay Thai techniques to your existing system, with detailed video instruction, in addition you get to try it out first, by giving you the first 2 weeks of lessons free - check it out at:

In addition have a look at:
for a no bullshit look at street fighting and self defence.

 

Academy of Combat Newsletter #155

 

Next John Will Seminar August 18th 2017

John Will is returning shortly to the Academy for another in depth and exciting BJJ seminar. John is one of the first 12 non-Brazilians to be awarded a BJJ black belt and currently holds the rank of fifth degree. During his long and storied martial arts career John has trained with iconic names such as Rigan Machado, Rickson Gracie, Benny Urquidez and Gene Lebell. As well as being one of the world's best martial arts instructors, John is also the author of a growing collection of books and DVDs. He also instructs law enforcement groups and Special Operations personnel all over the world. While John's seminars are always packed with extremely useful techniques they are also very entertaining and thought-provoking due to John's vast life experience and sense of humour. Please don't miss this incredible opportunity.

  brazilian jiu jitsu techniques, brazilian jiu jitsu bjj, brazilian jiu jitsu academy,

 

Pay by August 11th and gain entrance to the seminar for

 

 ONLY $70

 

After August 11th the cost is $80

 

Time: 6pm to 9pm, Friday August 18th, 2017
Location: Academy of Combat
Open to any belt level

 

Brown/Black Graduation

A big congratulations to all the Combat Kids and Freestyle Martial Arts students who did their brown and black belt graduation on Saturday. Everyone was put through an intensive 2 hour test of technique, fitness and sparring and you all did extremely well.

Graduation

Well done to everyone who who took part in the graduation on Saturday the 24th of June. The level of technique being shown was very high and it's great to see the progress you all have made.

Kids Classes

The kids classes are now in their last week of training before the school holidays. Kids classes will resume on Monday the 17th of July.

Reminders

1) Saturday fitness class 10:00am until 10:45am

2) Fighters Classes, Monday & Tuesday 8-9pm and Thursday 6-7pm.

3) There is Friday Night sparring 6-7:30pm for BJJ, MMA and Thai Boxing. If you haven’t sparred before please book a sparring etiquette appointment at reception before your first session.

4) There is an open mat on Saturdays for sparring and drilling from 12pm until 2pm.

Article

The Use of The Legs and Body for Punching and Elbow Power in Muay Thai and MMA Striking.

A Russian study done in the 1970s looked at the contribution of 3 major body regions to the power in the straight right punch of boxing.

The study divided the body into 3 regions; the legs, hips and upper torso, and the arms.

This breakdown yielded the following results: Average contribution of the arms 24.12%, the torso - hip region 37.42% and the legs 38.46%. It was very clear that the legs contributed the greatest amount of force to the punch.

One also must take into account that the legs must be driving of something, such as a floor, in order to deliver this force and also that the other regions depend on the legs driving off a surface to deliver their contribution.

I remember when I first started Karate, many years ago, how the hip was emphasized as contributing most to the power in the punch, and that the way to deliver this power was through a movement that stepped the body forward to throw the punch. In effect the punch was limited in speed, and thus power, by the speed of the step forward.

We call this type of body, biomechanical movement as Unified Power. When we consider the Boxer's straight right punch though, we must look at it from the Cumulative Power generation method. A useful analogy is the baseball pitchers' pitch.

The movement begins with a body twisting wind up, counter to the final force generation direction, in what is in effect a preparative chambering movement to take advantage of obtaining a full range of movement. The foot and leg is then driven to the ground, on striking the ground the foot drives off, to which is added the force contributed by the thigh that drives the rotation of the hips.

The resultant pivot of the hips sets up a twist in the body torso that produces the twisting power and speed the drives the pivot of the shoulders. This pivot drives the arm out, which straightens, with the lever action from the elbow adding further force and speed. Then a snapping of the wrist adds a final quick accelerating burst to the movement.

When we throw our punch we avoid setting up with exaggerated windups (chambering movements). However, we begin with the driving off the floor, of the foot, and everything else is very similar to the pitching movement.

The elbow also uses this cumulative methodology but without the arm straightening or wrist snap. However, the elbow is delivered with a whipping action of the elbow and often a dropping of the body to add more weight to the elbow.

The resultant speed and force generated is extremely powerful and far exceeds that generated by the aforementioned unified force generation of the old classical karate punch.

In order to take advantage of this movement we must have the rear driving foot pushing of a a base, such as the floor. In addition we must develop and maintain the correct body alignment and cumulative progression of the contributing elements of the body to realize the full potential of the force that is available.

This methodology is covered in full detail in our Muay Thai Online video instruction course. Check it out here at http://www.MuayThaiTrainingSite.com and get your first 2 weeks free.

Til next time keep training hard.

Dr Geoff, Ph.D. www.UltimateFightingSystems.com

Summary

In this newsletter tip we discuss the importance of using the legs in generating power in your punches and elbows.
 
You'll find a whole lot more, with detailed video instruction, in our Muay Thai online video training course and, so that you can try it out first, we give you the first 2 weeks of lessons free -  check it out at:

Also have a look at: http://www.LearnSelfDefensePrograms.com/ for a no bullshit look at street fighting and self defence.

 

Academy of Combat Newsletter #154


Graduation

The next graduation will be on Saturday the 24th of June at the following times:

12pm Thai Boxing
1pm MMA
2pm Freestyle Martial Arts

If you are taking part make sure you register at reception by Thursday the 22nd of June.

Kids Grading

The kids martial arts grading week will begin on Monday July 26th. The final grading day will be Saturday the 1st of July.

Brown/Black Graduation

The Combat Kids and Freestyle Martial Arts students will have their brown and black belt graduation on Saturday the 1st of July from 12 until 2pm. Come along to watch and support those who are taking part.

Reminders

1) Saturday fitness class 10:00am until 10:45am

2) Fighters Classes, Monday & Tuesday 8-9pm and Thursday 6-7pm.

3) There is Friday Night sparring 6-7:30pm for BJJ, MMA and Thai Boxing. If you haven’t sparred before please book a sparring etiquette appointment at reception before your first session.

4) There is an open mat on Saturdays for sparring and drilling from 12pm until 2pm.

Article

Dealing with common Muay Thai Training Injuries

If you are training seriously in Muay Thai or for that matter any physical activity, you will get injured from time to time.

In Muay Thai the two most common injuries are bruising and strained muscles.

In this Newsletter tip we'll only give a brief outline for treating these injuries.

For a more detailed report check out the blog article at www.UltimateFightingSystems.com

Bruising

The majority of bruises heal without treatment.

  • You can aid in the reduction of swelling and reduce the amount of pain by applying a cold compress such as ice cubes wrapped in a towel, to the bruise and elevating the injured area.
  • Rub a little tincture of arnica or arnica gel onto the bruise.
  • If you bruise easily, take 200 mg of vitamin C daily.

    Caution: Seek medical care if you have large and unusually painful bruises or if you begin to bruise easily for no apparent reason.

    Strained Muscles:

    A muscle strain, also called a pulled muscle, occurs when a muscle is stretched beyond it's normal range of motion, and small tears occur within the muscle.

    Treatment and subsequent recovery requires time.

    Recommended Treatment:

    Rest is recommended for the early recovery phase, lasting 1 to 5 days depending on the severity of the injury. Immobilization is not usually necessary, and can be potentially harmful to the repair process and outcome.

    Ice application should begin as soon as possible after sustaining a pulled muscle. The application of ice is performed in the same manner as for bruising describe above. The applications should be frequent, but each application should be no more than 15 minutes at a time.

  • Anti-Inflammatory Medications
  • Careful stretching and strengthening are useful in the treatment and prevention of muscle strain injuries.
  • After injuring the muscle, it is important to re-strengthen the muscle(s) before returning to athletic activities. Both the injury itself and the down time following the injury can reduce the muscles' strength. Stronger muscles are less likely to be reinjured.
  • Warming up prior to any physical exertion is extremely important as it will help loosen the muscle and prevent injuries.

    Launching into a sport with cold, unprepared muscles can result in a higher chance of straining the muscle.

    Taking the time to warm up and stretch properly will not only increase performance, lead to greater enjoyment of your sport but also help prevent the painful and frustrating down time that results from injuries sustained in your beloved sport.

    For much more about developing your movement, body posture and balance in Muay Thai training check out the Muay Thai online training course at http://www.MuayThaiTrainingSite.com it's dedicated to bringing you a complete resource for learning Muay Thai.

 

'Til next time keep training hard.

Dr Geoff, Ph.D. www.UltimateFightingSystems.com

Summary

If we are training regularly we will sustain injuries from time to time, that's part of the game.
 
In this newsletter tip we discuss the two most common injuries; bruising and pulled muscles and give some advice on treatment.

You'll find a whole lot more, with detailed video instruction, in our Muay Thai online video training course and, so that you can try it out first, we give you the first 2 weeks of lessons free -  check it out at:

Also have a look at: http://www.LearnSelfDefensePrograms.com/ for a no bullshit look at street fighting and self defence.

 

Academy of Combat Newsletter #153


Graduation

The next graduation will be on Saturday the 24th of June at the following times:

12pm Thai Boxing
1pm MMA
2pm Freestyle Martial Arts

If you are taking part make sure you register at reception by Thursday the 22nd of June.

Queens Birthday

The Academy will be closed on Monday the 5th of June for Queens Birthday weekend. We will be open again as usual on Tuesday the 6th.

Brown/Black Graduation

The Combat Kids and Freestyle Martial Arts students will have their brown and black belt graduation on Saturday the 1st of July from 12 until 2pm. Come along to watch and support those who are taking part.

Reminders

1) Saturday fitness class 10:00am until 10:45am

2) Fighters Classes, Monday & Tuesday 8-9pm and Thursday 6-7pm.

3) There is Friday Night sparring 6-7:30pm for BJJ, MMA and Thai Boxing. If you haven’t sparred before please book a sparring etiquette appointment at reception before your first session.

4) There is an open mat on Saturdays for sparring and drilling from 12pm until 2pm.

Article

Breathing

Learning to breathe properly is one of the most important aspects in not only Muay Thai training but any activity that we engage in, from Muay Thai training to singing to sitting an exam or playing Chess.
 The importance of correct breathing is stressed in all martial arts with many of the disciplines utilizing drills and forms to develop the correct breathing technique.
 
It is a major element in the so-called Chi or Ki, an energy that is purported to exist within all living things and that can be harnessed and channeled to enable us to do superhuman acts.
 
While there is no scientific basis to support the existence of Chi, and the stunts demonstrated by it's practitioners can easily be replicated by those of us who understand the trick or physics involved, there is certainly evidence to suggest that breathing correctly and efficiently enables us to concentrate better and control our mental function such that we are more focused.This in turn permits us to perform, seemingly extraordinary acts.
 
When fear starts to take control of us we can often bring ourselves back to a calm and more controllable state of mind by taking deep controlled breathes.
 
Developing the ability to breathe properly dramatically increases endurance enabling you to wear you opposition down. When we start to get tired we are more likely to make mistakes, particularly in combat sports and a fight between two technically equal fighters will often be decided by who is the fittest in respect of endurance, which is directly affected by our breathing.
 
Controlled and forced exhalation during striking or any explosive power movement is essential for generating maximal power. This must be done with short powerful exhalations that utilize rapid contraction of the abdominal muscles, and is often accompanied with a loud yell or kiai.
 
Another aspect of breathing worth consideration, particularly in combat sports, is that our reflexes are faster when we are exhaling and conversely slower when inhaling.

This is due to the mechanism involved in each: Inhalation is a active action requiring the contraction of the diaphragm, whereas, exhalation is passive because it involves the relaxation of the diaphragm.
 
We can therefore utilize an excellent window for attack by developing an awareness of when the opponent has exhaled and then attacking on the inhalation.
 
We must learn to breathe with controlled deep breaths. Breathing in quickly and exhaling slowly and under control.For optimal breathing we must breathe with the diaphragm, this gives us that apparent feeling of abdominal breathing. In addition we must then expand our ribcage by actively lifting our chest up to facilitate a deeper whole thoracic cavity breath. Exhalation should be slow and under control unless power or exertion is required in which case you will exhale in short powerful bursts utilizing your core abdominals to force the breath out.
 
Since breathing is an essential part of our oxygen delivery system we must develop it together with the rest of our cardiovascular system development. The most useful exercise that we can use to do this is running. There are numerous running regimes but for combat sports we must ensure that we include sprinting for the development of the explosiveness that is a major part of fighting. Therefore it is recommended that you run at a good pace for at least 5 - 8 km with several (at least 10) 100 meter sprints include during the run.
 
Dr Geoff, Ph.D.
www.UltimateFightingSystems.com

Summary

  • Correct breathing is essential for maximal effort in any pursuit we undertake form singing and playing chess to fighting Muay Thai or any other combat sport.

  • Train deep, whole thoracic cavity breathing with fast inhalation and slow controlled exhalation.

  • Develop your cardio-vascular fitness with running, particularly sprints for Muay Thai and Mixed Martial Arts.
...and, if you haven't done so already, be sure and check out our Muay Thai online video training course which allows you to learn it at home, or add Muay Thai techniques to your existing system, with detailed video instruction, in addition you get to try it out first, by giving you the first 2 weeks of lessons free -  check it out at:
http://www.MuayThaiTrainingCourse.com

 

Academy of Combat Newsletter #152


Welcome Back Kids

Welcome back to all our kids martial arts students who have returned from school holidays. We hope you have a great term of training.

Graduation

Well done to everyone who took part in the graduation on Saturday the 29th of March. The standard of technique was very high and it was great to see so many students graduating in MMA.

Brown/Black Graduation

The Combat Kids and young teenage Free-style Martial Arts students will have their brown and black belt graduation on Saturday the 1st of July from 12 until 2pm. Come along to watch and support those who are taking part.

Reminders

1) Saturday fitness class 10:00am until 10:45am

2) Fighters Classes, Monday & Tuesday 8-9pm and Thursday 6-7pm.

3) There is Friday Night sparring 6-7:30pm for BJJ, MMA and Thai Boxing. If you haven’t sparred before please book a sparring etiquette appointment at reception before your first session.

4) There is an open mat on Saturdays for sparring and drilling from 12pm until 2pm.

Article

Training Round Time Length.

When training our Muay Thai techniques on the pads, shadow-boxing or sparring we train in set round time periods. Traditionally the round length is the same as the length of round that we compete at, i.e. 2 minute rounds for amateurs and 3 minute rounds for professional bouts.

Usually we as Muay Thai trainers extend the length of the rounds to make training harder and to develop fitness and endurance. However, another approach that I take is to shorten the round lengths. This increases the intensity of the training by causing the student to train faster and harder in a more focused manner because of the shorter time periods.

By training this way the Muay Thai drills, although shorter in length, develop faster, more explosive Muay Thai techniques which is what really matters in a fight.

By combining both short intense duration training rounds with longer endurance enhancing rounds we can develop very intense and productive Muay training routines that will really improve your Muay Thai fighting ability.

One of my favorite training regimes is to spar and do pad work in the following sequence:

 Amateur 3 x 2 minute bout

1st round - 30 seconds

2nd round - 1 minute

3rd round - 2 minutes    

4th round - 3 minutes    

5th round - 2 minutes                    

6th round - 1 minute                      

7th round - 30 seconds                 

Professional 5 x 3 minute bout

1st round - 30 seconds

2nd round - 1 minute

3rd round - 2 minutes

4th round - 3minutes

5th round - 4 minutes

6th round - 4 minutes

7th round - 3 minutes

8th round - 2 minutes

9th round - 1 minute

10th round - 30 seconds

This way of training my Muay Thai fighters have been very successful and develops fighters that are fast, explosive, very focused and have the endurance to fight with high intensity for long hard matches.

For much more about developing your movement, body posture and balance in Muay Thai training check out the Muay Thai online training course at http://www.MuayThaiTrainingSite.com it's dedicated to bringing you a complete resource for learning Muay Thai.

'Til next time keep training hard.

Dr Geoff, Ph.D. www.UltimateFightingSystems.com 

Summary

When training our Muay Thai Techniques we often use a system of training where we train for the length of round that we will fight at if we were to have Muay Thai bout.
 
In this newsletter tip we discuss a methodology of training rounds that will provide both intensity and endurance.

You'll find a whole lot more, with detailed video instruction, in our Muay Thai online video training course and, so that you can try it out first, we give you the first 2 weeks of lessons free -  check it out at:

Also have a look at: http://www.LearnSelfDefensePrograms.com/ for a no bullshit look at street fighting and self defence.

 

Academy of Combat Newsletter #151


Anzac Day

The Academy will be closed for Anzac Day on Tuesday April 25th. We will open again on Wednesday the 26th as usual.


Kids Martial Arts Holidays

The Kids martial arts classes are currently on a break for the school holidays. They will resume on Monday the 1st of May.


Welcome Livi

A warm welcome to our newest trainee receptionist Livi. We hope you enjoy your time at the Academy.


Reminders


1) Saturday fitness class 10:00am until 10:45am

2) Fighters Classes, Monday & Tuesday 8-9pm and Thursday 6-7pm.

3) There is Friday Night sparring 6-7:30pm for BJJ, MMA and Thai Boxing. If you haven’t sparred before please book a sparring etiquette appointment at reception before your first session.

4) There is an open mat on Saturdays for sparring and drilling from 12pm until 2pm.

Article

Balance & Control of Body-weight

One aspect of training any skilled body movement, especially Muay Thai techniques, is the maintenance of good body posture.

You must develop a fine sense of a balanced posture that allows you to move quickly and easily in any direction.

In addition, you must be able to move from attack to defense, and back again when required.

In order to do this you must develop a posture in which the head, shoulders and hips are held in a straight line above the feet; with the center of gravity positioned at a point between the feet.

A great analogy and mind-set is to pretend that you have a book balanced on your head at all times and move around, such that it would remain there.

When you move, keep your steps short and light, moving on the balls of the feet.

If you need to cover more distance use several steps instead of large jumping steps.

When you throw your punches avoid leaning forward as this not only brings your body weight onto the front leg (making it difficult for you to move effectively), but also puts the head in a position that makes it an easy target to hit.

When throwing your kicks, maintain an upright body position as much as possible when throwing the kick. Pay attention to the way your arms move when you throwing the kick as they play a major part in keeping the body erect.

When on the defense again develop a strong up fight posture that stays strong and tenses only when it takes the strike, relaxing immediately after, in preparation for throwing explosive counter attacks.

Also on defense, train yourself to move out of the way of strikes, just enough, so that the opponent misses but staying close so that you can quickly counter-attack. This is the "make him miss, then make him pay" strategy.

Train good movement and body posture by shadow-boxing in front of a mirror and when you drill your techniques, with your partner on the pads, have him/her comeback striking you with the pads after you have thrown your technique. This will train you to maintain good posture in defense and to move around effectively.

Once you have developed the ability to throw a technique then take a counter-attack from your pad-man then train throwing an immediate counter-attack of your own.

These are just a few tips for developing you balance and posture when training Muay Thai techniques. You must train hard and consistently to develop your balance and posture as it is extremely important for Muay Thai.

For much more about developing your movement , body posture and balance in Muay Thai training check out the Muay Thai online training course at http://www.MuayThaiTrainingSite.com it's dedicated to bringing you a complete resource for learning Muay Thai.

'Til next time keep training hard.

Dr Geoff, Ph.D. www.UltimateFightingSystems.com

Summary

Balance and body posture are an extremely important aspect of effective Muay Thai fighting.
 
In this newsletter tip we discuss some of the important factors that you must pay attention to in your training and give some ideas for Muay Training exercises that will help you develop your balance and posture while executing Muay Thai techniques.
 
You'll find a whole lot more, with detailed video instruction, in our Muay Thai online video training course and, so that you can try it out first, we give you the first 2 weeks of lessons free -  check it out at:

Also have a look at:
for a no bullshit look at street fighting and self defence.

 

Academy of Combat Newsletter #150


Kids Martial Arts Grading

The kids martial arts classes all performed very well at their gradings last week. They now have one more week of training and then they will be away for the school holidays.


Floor Completed

The new floor in the weapons room is now totally completed and can be used as normal.


Easter 2017 Holiday Hours

Good Friday, 14th of April: Closed
Saturday, 15th of April: Open
Easter Sunday, 16th of April: Closed
Monday, 17th of April: Closed


Reminders


1) Saturday fitness class 10:00am until 10:45am

2) Fighters Classes, Monday & Tuesday 8-9pm and Thursday 6-7pm.

3) There is Friday Night sparring 6-7:30pm for BJJ, MMA and Thai Boxing. If you haven’t sparred before please book a sparring etiquette appointment at reception before your first session.

4) There is an open mat on Saturdays for sparring and drilling from 12pm until 2pm.

Article


Incorporating Muay Thai into a Mixed Martial Arts Game Plan, Part 1

The fastest growing fighting sport and martial art (for those, like me, that consider it one) in the world is undoubtedly Mixed Martial Arts (MMA).

If you're serious about your MMA fight game then you must start incorporating Muay Thai kickboxing into our Mixed Martial Arts training routine.

Muay Thai is without a doubt the most powerful striking system available and its' techniques can be readily integrated into mixed martial arts training, however, with the ability to take an opponent to the ground many techniques have to be either avoided or modified.

 

  • In respect of punching techniques there is little problem and the Jab should be diligently drilled with footwork to set up your attacks, whether striking or setting up takedowns. The straight or overhand right is a safe and powerful punch that should also be included and drilled with your jab.

 

  • The uppercut and hooks are excellent against grapplers when they are shooting for the takedown and should be drilled with angular takedown evading footwork.

  • Elbows provide devastatingly powerful strikes in mixed martial arts training whether during standup or on the ground. Train striking with elbows from all angles, standing and on the ground. Incorporate elbows into your mixed martial arts training from the standup grappling "pummeled" clinch position by breaking away to open up the clinch and striking with elbows.

  • I would recommend keeping your straight punching attacks focused on the head as dropping to the body could leave you open to being sprawled.

  • However, body hooks from an angle are still a very useful energy sapping attack that wears the opponent down.

  • In addition, train all of your punches for striking on the ground. Practice developing power in your strikes from the mount, switch-base side control, knee ride, guard and even back control.

 

If you are a MMA fighter, train and fight like one. You must develop a complete fight game as the days when you could fight competitively in an MMA match as a pure grappler of striker are long gone. MMA is rapidly evolving and developing its' own very distinct sets of tactics and it is clear that two of the most dominant fighting systems that are part of this evolution are Muay Thai for standup striking and Brazilian Jiu Jitsu for grappling.

 

'Til next time keep training hard.

Dr Geoff, Ph.D. www.UltimateFightingSystems.com

Summary

The fastest growing fighting system in the world today is Mixed Martial Arts (MMA). 
As it evolves and develops there are clearly two dominant martial arts that stand out as essential for being competitive in in MMA; Muay Thai for the stand up striking and Brazilian Jiu Jitsu for the ground game. In this and the next Newsletter tip we will look at recommendations for incorporating Muay Thai into your MMA game.

 
...and, if you haven't done so already, be sure and check out our Muay Thai online video training course which allows you to learn it at home, or add Muay Thai techniques to your existing system, with detailed video instruction, in addition you get to try it out first, by giving you the first 2 weeks of lessons free - check it out at:
http://www.MuayThaiTrainingCourse.com


Also have a look at:
for a no bullshit look at street fighting and self defence.

 

 

Academy of Combat Newsletter #149


John Will Seminar

We had an awesome BJJ seminar on Friday with John Will, which focused on entries to ashi garami. These techniques really helped solidify the leg attack game that we have been working on with John for the last year.


No Gi Showdown

Congratulations to Sam Holdaway who won a gold medal and Malcolm Creelman who won a silver medal at the CFC No Gi Showdown grappling tournament on Saturday. Also well done to Cory Shadbolt and Fergus Jenkins, who at 15 and 16 years old, performed extremely well at their first grappling competition.


Weapons Room Floor

The long awaited repairs to the floor in the weapons room are now in progress and we apologise for any disruption this has caused. 


Reminders


1) Saturday fitness class 10:00am until 10:45am

2) Fighters Classes, Monday & Tuesday 8-9pm and Thursday 6-7pm.

3) There is Friday Night sparring 6-7:30pm for BJJ, MMA and Thai Boxing. If you haven’t sparred before please book a sparring etiquette appointment at reception before your first session.

4) There is an open mat on Saturdays for sparring and drilling from 12pm until 2pm.

Article


 Weight Training For Muay Thai

If you want to be competitive in Muay thai or MMA you have to supplement your training with weight training.

The value of weight training increased power, stability and the ability to absorb damage. In addition, if you are of equal skill and stronger than your opponent then you will have the greater advantage.

In a future Newsletter Tip we will discuss High Intensity Interval training, that will develop your conditioning to optimal levels, but you must start with a good, foundation building, conditioning and weight training program so that you have a solid base to build on as this will reduce down time due to injuries and assist you in getting to peak condition faster.

The flowing program is a good mass strength building program that will form a good foundation for your training.

To deal with the schedule that I work within I have opted for a weight training schedule of, alternating body part, super sets and giant sets. Training 4 days a week in a split routine with Chest, Back and Abs on Mondays and Thursdays and Arms and Legs on Tuesdays and Fridays. Each body part is worked with 3-5 sets a body part performed in a progressive weight increase manner and with very little time between sets to keep the intensity high, each workout period being only about 40 minutes in duration, this keeps my heart and work rate high delivering a very high conditioning effect that is essential for the rigors of Muay Thai and Mixed Martial Arts training.

I concentrate on major basic exercises and don't bother with many specific body part exercises:

Mondays: Alternating Flat Bench Press, Wide grip Pulldowns, Back Hyper-extensions and Incline abdominal crunches with weight (4 sets of this giant set are performed). Followed by Incline Bench Press, Bent over Bar Bell Rows (3 sets of this super set are performed).

Tuesdays: Alternating 4 sets of Close Grip Bench Press and 5 sets of Seated Incline Dumb-bell Curls, performed as a superset, once the Close Grip Bench Presses are finished Tricep Pushdowns are performed in conjunction with the Dumb-bell curls to complete the arm giant set. 5 sets of leg press and 3 of leg extension are then executed for legs (separately), these are performed together with 4 sets of power cleans.

Thursdays: Alternating Incline Bench Press, Side to side Single Dumb-bell Rows, Back Hyper-extensions and Incline abdominal crunches with weight (4 sets of this giant set are performed). Followed by Flat Bench Press, Wide Grip Pulldowns (3 sets of this super set are performed).

Fridays: Similar to Tuesday; alternating 4 sets of Close Grip Bench Press and 5 sets of Standing Dumb-bell Curls, performed as a superset, once the Close Grip Bench Presses are finished Tricep Pushdowns are performed in conjunction with the Dumb-bell curls to complete the arm giant set. 5 sets of leg press and 3 of leg extension are then executed for legs (separately), these are performed together with 4 sets of power cleans.

In addition I run for 5 kms on a Sunday morning just to keep a level of cardio up that compliments my martial arts training. I should add that the majority (~ 95%) of my martial arts training is hands on grappling, padwork and either sparring or sparring and scenario drilling, very little is performed in midair.

Remember to keep your intensity up when training; get the work done, then get out of the gym for rest and recovery time.

'til next time keep training hard

 
Dr Geoff, Ph.D.
www.UltimateFightingSystems.com

Summary

If you want to be a competitive Muay Thai or MMA fighter then you must incorporate weight training into your training program.
 
Keep it simple and basic; for fighting we want to develop power and the ability to take damage - we are not bodybuilders, who are building muscle for aesthetics, mainly.
 
Always train with high intensity and get plenty of rest to allow the body to recover.

 
...and, if you haven't done so already, be sure and check out our Muay Thai online video training course which allows you to learn it at home, or add Muay Thai techniques to your existing system, with detailed video instruction, in addition you get to try it out first, by giving you the first 2 weeks of lessons free - check it out at:
http://www.MuayThaiTrainingCourse.com


Also have a look at:
for a no bullshit look at street fighting and self defence.

 

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